Posts Tagged ‘1940s’

Paisley War Weapons Week December 1940

December 9, 2015

Close up of a portrait possibly of Peggy Jane Skinner, enclosed in her 1940s diaries. Source: Mark Norris, WWZG collection.

Close up of a portrait possibly of Peggy Jane Skinner, enclosed in her 1940s diaries. Source: Mark Norris, WWZG collection.

Paisley War Weapons Week, 9th to 14th December 1940.

15 year old Peggy Jane Skinner’s 1940 diary records how this national fundraising event happened 75 years ago in Paisley in Scotland,  where she and her SW London born family were based during the war.

Today we are used to charity appeals at Christmas but this was one appeal with a difference in 1940.

Saturday 7th                 Went to Paisley with Bunty to see [the film] My Two Husbands, it was very amusing.   Altogether, it was quite a good show. Paisley was crowded, it was War Weapons Week …

Thursday 12th              It is Paisley War Weapons Week this week, our savings collection last week towards it was £175, this week it is £333, making a total of over £500 which is five times as much as we aimed at.

‘Our savings collection’ probably refers  to a local area or school collection.

I found an interesting reference to this 1940 War Weapons Week in Glasgow and Paisley in a poem by Lance Corporal Alexander Barr,  193 Field. Ambulance, R.A.S.C.  on the BBC People at War website,  www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/33/a5748933 contributed by elsabeattie on 14 September 2005 as Article ID: A5748933

WAR WEAPONS WEEK

Well done Glasgow, and all the rest

For Savings Week you’ve done your best

Now it’s Paisley’s turn to show

How keen we are to crush the foe.

 

We need more tanks, more ‘planes, more guns

We need them all to beat the Huns

The road to victory we can pave

If all will do their best to save.

 

We’ve got the men, they’ve proved their worth

In every corner of the earth

Our need today is £.S.D.

Each shilling helps to keep us free.

 

Great Britain always has been free

The ruler of the mighty sea

If everyone will do his bit

Britain can still be greater yet.

 

Our Provost asks a million pounds

Paisley with patriots abounds

If each will save that little more

Above that figure we can soar.

 

Go to it, Paisley, show your mettle

And Hitler’s heroes we’ll quickly settle

Soon then this dreadful war will cease

And we shall live once more in peace.

 

© L/Cpl. Alexander Barr. 193 Field. Amb. R.A.S.C.

Alexander Barr’s photo and poem can be found at Article ID: A5748933 BBC People at War website, www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/33/a5748933

Remarkably a short silent black and white 3 minute film exists of the Paisley War Weapons Week 1941 inaugural procession parades in the National Library of Scotland archive http://ssa.nls.uk/film.cfm?fid=3469 amongst several other Paisley clips.

The film shows according to their archivist a “pipe band leading a procession of navy, army, home guard(?), women’s army, police force and the fire brigade through the streets, past crowds and the Lord Provost of Glasgow and army officers standing on the rostrum taking the salute. Procession along the streets past the La Scala cinema and shops.”

Somewhere amongst the crowds on the film may have been a young Peggy Skinner! Amongst the parade may also have been her Home Guard father William Ernest Skinner, an engineer and draughtsman from London, working for the war effort in Paisley.

Part of the fundraising drive and parades through Paisley was a crashed German fighter plane, 4 (S) /LG 2 Bf109E White N flown by Ofw. Josef Harmeling which was shot down or force-landed at Langenhoe near Wick, Essex on 29th October 1940. According to Larry Hickey and Peter Cornwell, the plane was widely displayed   “across Northern England and Southern Scotland in support of several local War Weapons Weeks and visited many towns including Glasgow and Paisley during late November 1940…” Source: http://forum.12oclockhigh.net

Closer to our World War Zoo Gardens project base at Newquay Zoo, we have in our collection an interesting example of a competition to design a poster  for local and evacuee schoolchildren, in this case Benenden School. These girls were of similar age to Peggy Skinner.

 

Spitfires, Stukas, George and the Dragon: Newquay War Weapons Week poster design from Carmen Blacker and Joan D Pring at Benenden Girls School, evacuated to Newquay in the 1940s. Copyright: World War Zoo project, Newquay Zoo

Spitfires, Stukas, George and the Dragon on Newquay War Weapons Week poster design from Carmen Blacker and Joan D Pring at Benenden Girls School, evacuated to Newquay in the 1940s. Copyright: World War Zoo project, Newquay Zoo

We will post a little more of Peggy’s 1940 Christmas diary this week, so you can read it day by day 75 years on, a little of the everyday lives and anxieties of wartime folk.

Happy Christmas!

Posted by Mark Norris, World War Zoo Gardens Project, Newquay Zoo.

Former WW2 ATS driver turned Queen becomes Britain’s longest reigning monarch.

September 9, 2015

HM Queen Elizabeth II (b. 1926) when Princess Elizabeth trains as an A.T.S Officer at a Training Centre in Camberley, Surrey  Apr 1945  Gelatin silver print | 20.8 x 25.9 cm (image) | RCIN 2002230

HM Queen Elizabeth II (b. 1926) when Princess Elizabeth trains as an A.T.S Officer at a Training Centre in Camberley, Surrey Apr 1945
Gelatin silver print | 20.8 x 25.9 cm (image) | RCIN 2002230

Photograph from the Royal Collection of Second Subaltern Princess Elizabeth, later Queen Elizabeth II, dressed in overalls as part of her training in the A.T.S., takes the spark plugs out of a car.

“Princess Elizabeth joined the A.T.S. Auxiliary Territorial Service at her own insistence in 1945, aged 18, as a Subaltern. By the end of the war she had reached the rank of Junior Commander, having completed her course at No. 1 Mechanical Training Centre of the ATS and passed out as a fully qualified driver.”

https://www.royalcollection.org.uk/collection/2002230/hm-queen-elizabeth-ii-b-1926-when-princess-elizabeth-trains-as-an-a-t-s-officer

Today 9th September 2015 Queen Elizabeth 2nd becomes Britain’s longest-reigning monarch (1952-2015),  when she passes the record set by her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria (1837-1901).

The Queen will have reigned for 63 years and seven months – an amazing  23,226 days!

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-34177107

Congratulations, Ma’am!

queen eliz vic double headerqe2 ww2ww2 QE2 stamp 2

You can read more about this Two Queens story and how it inspires innovative classroom history and topic  learning at one of our sister blogs (Newquay Zoo / RZSS Edinburgh Zoo) for Darwin 200 and the Victorians and history teaching using stamps:

https://darwin200stampzoo.wordpress.com/2015/09/09/queen-elizabeth-2nd-overtakes-queen-victoria-as-uk-longest-reigning-monarch/

Posted by Mark Norris, World War Zoo Gardens project / Darwin 200 stamp zoo project, Newquay Zoo

Remembering the start of the Blitz 7 September 1940 (and a happy new school term )

September 7, 2015

Remembering the start of the Blitz 7 September 1940 (and a new term starts in school)

Today is the 75th anniversary of the day in the middle of the Battle of Britain that day bombing of RAF airfields and dogfights turned to night bombing of cities like London which went on for months almost without ceasing. The Blitz on London had begun.

There are widespread commemorations online and around the country of these events 75 years including the Battle of Britain Day 15 September, so that the next generation can pay their respects to and learn from the passing generation who lived through WW2.

Thankfully WW2 is still on the Primary School History Curriculum as schools go back in Cornwall.

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Small part of a WW2 display in a Cornish School c. 2012

Working out of Newquay Zoo on its Education section, I often get to visit primary and secondary schools and am  usually  impressed by the displays I see and work I hear going on.

This ranges from hearing “Hey Mister Miller”, a medley of 40s music and songs being rehearsed by student teachers with children at Antony School to seeing great mock up Anderson shelters in a 40s corner.

In another school which I think it might have been Devoran whilst taking rainforest animals in c. 2011/12,  I saw this simple WW2 display in its entrance / hall area. This must have been by Year 3 /4 (before the curriculum change that WW2 is now studied in Year 6).

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Interesting Year 3/ 4 artwork studies of famous WW2 photos.

Year 3 in the past focussed on evacuation and a child’s view of the war. There is now a different WW2 history curriculum unit for year 6 in the New 2013/14 Primary National Curriculum.

inspire yr 6 ww2 doc

Year 6 now have an  interesting wartime history unit in Cornwall Learning’s Inspire Curriculum Year 6 Battle of Britain: Bombs Battles and Bravery for the Spring Term Year 6

Mark Norris delivering one of our World War Zoo Gardens workshops in ARP uniform with  volunteer Ken our zoo 'Home Guard' (right)  (Picture: Lorraine Reid, Newquay Zoo)

Mark Norris delivering one of our World War Zoo Gardens workshops in ARP uniform with volunteer Ken our zoo ‘Home Guard’ (right) (Picture: Lorraine Reid, Newquay Zoo)

You can read more about the wartime history schools workshops that we offer here at Newquay Zoo in two blogposts:

Studying and  Designing WW2 Posters makes an appearance in the Year 6 History Unit – this original 1941 poster design in our collection was designed by two teenage evacuees the late Carmen Blacker and the late Joan D Pring at Benenden Girls School, evacuated to the Bristol Hotel Newquay in the 1940s.

WAAF servicewomen and an RAF sergeant at an unidentified  Chain Home Station like RAF Drytree, declassified photo 14 August 1945 (from an original in the World War Zoo gardens archive)

The importance or miracle  of RADAR – WAAF servicewomen and an RAF sergeant at an unidentified Chain Home Station (like RAF Drytree, Cornwall) declassified photo 14 August 1945 (from an original in the World War Zoo gardens archive)

Very shortly in the next three weeks we will be blog posting about:

  • the Battle of Britain Day 15 September, stamps  and lots of Spitfires …
  • Peggy Jane Skinner’s teenage 1940 Blitz diary from our collection
  • the bombing of London Zoo 1940/41
  • the bombing of  Chessington Zoo and its partial evacuation to Paignton Zoo (our sister zoo) .  
World War Zoo Gardens sign, Newquay Zoo, Cornwall, UK

London Zoo’s ARP shelter pictured on our World War Zoo Gardens sign, Newquay Zoo, Cornwall, UK

Remembering the start of the Blitz 7 September 1940 75 years on.

Posted by Mark Norris, Newquay Zoo / World War Zoo Gardens project

Contact us via the comments page or via the Newquay Zoo website.

Remembering Robert Hurst Cowley RAFVR died 2 September 1940

September 2, 2015

2 September 1940 is the 75th anniversary of the death of Robert Hurst Cowley, RAFVR on air operations in Scotland.

Robert was the  son of garden writer, former Kewite and WW1 veteran Herbert Cowley about whom more can be read on our Wikipedia entry for him:  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Cowley

Herbert Cowley (1885-1967) from his Kew Guil journal obituary 1968

Herbert Cowley (1885-1967) from his Kew Guild journal obituary 1968.

Herbert Cowley had survived the trenches of a previous war, but lost many friends, family and colleagues. We wrote about him in a previous blogpost: https://worldwarzoogardener1939.wordpress.com/2013/03/22/dig-for-victory-1917-world-war-1-style-the-lost-gardeners-of-kew-and-the-fortunate-herbert-cowley-1885-1967/

Herbert’s unexpected move to the West Country and retirement from garden journalism may be explained by a sad wartime event in late 1940.

It appears that one of his sons, RAF Sergeant Observer Robert Hurst Cowley, 580643, died aged 22 on 2 September 1940 flying with 57 Squadron on Blenheim bombers on anti-shipping patrols over the North Sea from its base in Elgin in Scotland.

Robert is listed on the CWGC website as the “son of Herbert & Elsie Mabel Cowley of East Grinstead, Sussex”.

Runnymede memorial to missing aircrew (Image source: CWGC)

Runnymede memorial to missing aircrew (Image source: CWGC)

Robert Hurst Cowley has no known grave and is commemorated on panel 13 of the Runnymede Memorial to missing aircrew.

Robert is also listed on the St. Thomas a Becket church, Framfield on the War Memorial as ‘of this parish’. http://www.roll-of-honour.com/Sussex/Framfield.html

Remembering Robert Hurst Cowley RAFVR, his grieving father Herbert Cowley and mother Elsie.

WW2 Eggless Cake recipe from the YAC website

April 19, 2015

Quick WW2 wartime cake recipe to try from the newly relaunched website for the Young Archaeologist’s Club or YAC:

http://www.yac-uk.org/activity/bake-an-eggless-cake

“Heritage you can eat”, that fits with our World War Zoo Gardens allotment philosophy and workshop approach at Newquay Zoo.

Look out for our previous entries on WW1 Christmas cake and WW2 Savoury Potato biscuits.

Maybe ANZAC Biscuits should be the next topical ones  featured with the Gallipoli WW1 centenary next weekend on 25th April? We’ll be blog-posting about zoo and botanic garden staff involved in Gallipoli in time for ANZAC day on  25 April 2015.

A few ANZAC biscuit recipes can be found here at BBC Food and  Taste.Com AU

A wartime guide to Edinburgh 1943

April 1, 2015

This little wartime guide to Edinburgh is something I didn’t get time to post during the 2014 Scottish referendum or during the RZSS Edinburgh Zoo centenary in 2013. It is from the 5th Edition, November 1943.

Edinburgh wartime guide c/o the World War Zoo Gardens collection, Newquay Zoo.

Edinburgh wartime guide c/o the World War Zoo Gardens collection, Newquay Zoo.

It gives a little flavour of wartime life in Edinburgh and Scotland during WW2. Clicking on a picture below should allow you to enlarge it and read more.

wartime guide 2wartime guide 3

More about Edinburgh wartime life, such as where to sleep for visiting servicemen and women:wartime guide 4

And of course, regimental clubs and less glamorous canteens and rest rooms for H.M. Forces:

wartime guide 5Alongside “leading churches in the city”, there is mention of Edinburgh Zoo and an image of its polar bears. There is also suggestions for Sunday evening entertainments other than churches.

wartime guide 6wartime guide 7 mapAmongst many recreation and entertainments including cinemas, theatres, public baths and zoos, golf seems to feature quite heavily in this little wartime tourism guide in the era of “holidays at home” in Scotland.

“>wartime guide 8

“Some addresses which may be useful” in wartime from ARP and NAAFI to the NFS and the YWCA.

wartime guide  10

wartime guide 12

wartime guide 11

So that’s a glimpse of wartime life in Edinburgh, a little bit of time travel.

There is a final page written in French which I will scan and add later, probably for Free French and Canadian French troops visiting the city.

Later in the year I will add more about the history of Edinburgh Zoo, its remarkable founder ‘Tom’ T.H. Gillespie and a few stories from its WW1 and WW2 history.

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Happy 90th birthday Peggy Jane Skinner!

December 20, 2014

Back in 2012 I published a few excerpts from wartime diaries from my collection; amongst them my favourite is a selection belonging to Peggy Jane Skinner, born 90 years ago on 20 December 1924 in Kingston-upon-Thames, Richmond, Surrey.

Several years of research eventually tracked down a death certificate stating that Peggy died in 2011, aged 86.

Peggy Jane Skinner's 1943 diary and a photo believed to be her. Source: Mark Norris, WWZG collection.

Peggy Jane Skinner’s 1943 diary and a photo believed to be her. Source: Mark Norris, WWZG collection.

In 1940 Peggy was a 15 year old Kingston / Richmond schoolgirl living in Glendee Road, Renfrew on the edge of Glasgow and Clydeside, Scotland. She spends her summer with relatives back in Kingston-upon-Thames and Richmond, London. Her father William Ernest Skinner appears to have been working as an “co-ordinating engineer” in wartime Glasgow factories and became a sergeant in the local Home Guard battery (probably anti aircraft guns or rocket batteries protecting Glasgow factories and shipyards).  Originally from a Hartlepool maritime family, her father is described on Peggy’s birth certificate as a cycle agent, a year earlier as a draughtsman. These were skilled jobs and maybe where Peggy got her scientific side from.

By 1941/2 she had made it on a Carnegie Trust Grant and Renfrew Education Authority grant to the University of Glasgow as a wartime science student in botany, radio, astronomy and ‘Natural Philosophy’ (science), again working though her summer in wartime London as a council clerk.

Over the next year or two, we’ll feature a little more about Peggy Skinner’s diaries for 1940, 1943 and 46-49 in later blogposts; eventually part of the 1943 diary section will be added to the Glasgow University Story website and  blog  http://www.universitystory.gla.ac.uk/ww2-background/

The 1943 diary is full of interesting detail about being a female student at a wartime university, of her friends attending Daft Friday dances, complaints about catering and problems with wartime transport (by tram or trolleybus) making it to lectures on time.

Together with the 1940 diary, we get many glimpses of the highs and lows, stresses and strains of her school and student life as a civilian on the Home Front in Scotland and London. There is much about clothes rationing, Paisley War Weapons Week 1940, balloon barrages behind her house at Glendee Road in Renfrew,  fundraising for wartime charities, firewatch, canteen work for the war effort as a university  student  after completing her chaotic wartime schooling with schools requisitioned by the military and school windows meshed against bomb blasts, for example:

Friday 6th September 1940: Air Raid Practice yesterday, fire drill today …

Thursday 12th … half day from school as net was being put on windows …

Thursday 24th October … Air raid last night lasted for two hours. It’s the first time that anything’s happened when the siren’s gone. Several bombs dropped in Joyhnstone and round about. An awful lot of noise last night. 

We don’t have a diary for 1941 and the period of the Clydeside Blitz, but she survived and passed her matriculation exams to attend university.

In our 2012 blog post we quoted from her 1943 diaries. Like Churchill with his view that the end of 1942 was the ‘end of the beginning’, Peggy’s  1943 wartime student  diary entries start on a more optimistic note than her (missing) 1942 diary would have done:

Tuesday 2nd     February 1943:                I’m going to bed very late again as I had a bath and once I get in I can never be bothered getting out. The war news has been good now for a month or two, it is the best spell we have had since war began, the only trouble seems to be in Tunisia and it’s not too serious there – yet. It must do the occupied countries a lot of good to hear good news for a change.

Saturday 9th  January 1943:      Very uninteresting day for my last Saturday of holiday.  I would have liked to have gone with mum and dad to see Noel Coward In Which We Serve but I did not like to ask and anyway I’d made up my mind that next term I must work harder (what a hope but I must try) and must try also to enjoy myself more, but how I could do that without going to dances which is impossible, I don’t know.”

When she saw it later, she liked the film, more so than Mrs Miniver:

Wednesday 7th  April 1943  –  I went to pictures by myself this evening to Paisley to see “Mrs Miniver” with Greer Garson  and Walter Pidgeon. As I rather expected I would be I was rather disappointed with it. I’d heard such a lot about it  that I’m doubtful if any picture could come up to standards which were to be expected of a film  of which I’d heard such glowing stories. The little boy in it was awfully good, also the clergyman and Walter Pidgeon and the Young Mrs Miniver but Greer Garson seemed to have an awful fixed grin on her face.

Postwar life

9 November 1943 – Joint Recruiting Board … Had interview this morning, after first two girls had asked for the forces, we were all called in and told that the only option we have is Research or Industry. I did not know for sure which to sy, so said Research. Air Force bloke spent so much time talking to each person that I did not get away till 10.30 and so missed Geography again.”

Graduating in 1944, the  next diary in my collection  picks up Peggy’s story in 1946 working at RAE Farnborough aircraft development factory on Radio and Mica Condensers. As RAE Farnborough was scaled down after the war, she moved to TCC Condensers in Acton (which later became part of Plessey). The TCC  building and firm closed mid 1960s, becoming later a BBC building used for Doctor Who 1970s filming.

Peggy kept regular diaries but we only have a few, covering the next 3 years to 1949. She worked on electronics, condensers and batteries, radio and early television, including visits to Alexandra Palace in its early BBC TV days.

Her diaries are full of technical information on condensers, capacitors, Schering Bridges and Q-Meters. FAST, the RAE Farnborough collection have expressed their interest in the early 1946 sections about life at the Ambarrow hostel and RAE Farnborough as it was changing over into peacetime. Her job at RAE from 1944 onwards on Radio was obviously of support for the war effort; there are wartime TCC Condensers for radio equipment in the Imperial War Museum.

Her late 1940s diaries evoke a London of post-war Austerity, power cuts, strikes, heatwaves, wet Victory Parades and continued rationing shortages, including of clothing. Peggy spends a lot of time ‘mending stockings’ and buying  ‘remnants’ of cloth to make clothes.

Peggy Skinner's patent on batteries, Yardney Corps 1956/60 USA

Peggy Skinner’s patent on batteries, Yardney Corps 1956/60 USA

And after that no more diaries, just a few traces that I’ve found through family history websites. She took out a co-patent on battery developments for Yardney Corp USA /UK in the 1950s /60s. No doubt that Peggy who had a wartime Astronomy and Science BSc Degree from Glasgow would have been delighted to learn 60 years later that modern Yardney Lithion batteries were in use with the Mars Rovers in her lifetime and are still going strong on Mars in 2014.

Peggy Skinner's patent on Lithion batteries, Yardney Corps 1956/60 USA

Peggy Skinner’s patent on Lithion batteries, Yardney Corps 1956/60 USA

Peggy Skinner comes across in her diaries as an inquisitive, spirited but  quite a shy young woman with many friends and  large London family of aunts, uncles and cousins. She never married for some reason; maybe the missing diaries cover lost romances.

Throughout life she was involved with the church, teaching Sunday school (quite reluctantly at times) and as part of the postwar Christian revival crusades of the late 1940s such as the Norbiton Fellowship. She seems to have worshipped at local Anglican churches including St. Peter’s Norbiton for many years. She also appears to have spent much of her later adult life living with or caring for her mother Minnie Letitia Skinner who died in the mid 1970s, sharing a house in Woodfield Gardens, New Malden.

The diaries came into my collection via an online auction  from a house clearance in that area.

So far we have found no surviving relatives either from the Field or Skinner families, including her younger brother Mick / Michael (who died late 1990s?) or cousins Peter and Madge.

In the early raids of 1940, her father considers having her and Mick evacuated overseas (before the SS City of Benares disaster). As the Battle of Britain raged over her home London skies and merged into the Blitz, her family consider asking her cousins Peter and Young Madge up to the apparent safety of Glasgow, only to have bombing raids visit thir area too in 1940 and 1941. By the end of her 1948/9 diaries her brother Mick is doing his National Service.

If Peggy Jane Skinner were still alive, she would be celebrating her 90th Birthday on 20 December 2014. We would love to hear from anyone who knew Peggy Skinner via our comments page.

Wartime Christmas and Birthdays
On her 16th birthday 1940 she records: “Black velvet for frock, jumper, ring and money to buy books were my presents. Half Day for 3rd Years Dance [at School] … Short Air-Raid warning this evening.”

There is little recorded in the way of gifts for Christmas 1940, although being in Scotland there is first footing by neighbours: “Saw New Year in. Mr Buchanan was first foot” (Glasgow, 1 January 1940) and “Mr Read (neighbour) saw the New Year In so this should actually be here” (Glasgow, 1st January 1941).

A rare survival of a cardboard Christmas stocking toy in our World War Zoo gardens collection alongside the excellent Christmas on the Home Front book by Mike Brown

A rare survival of a cardboard Christmas stocking toy in our World War Zoo gardens collection alongside the excellent Christmas on the Home Front book by Mike Brown

 

The book Christmas on the Home Front by Mike Brown gives a good idea of how tight things were trying to obtain Christmas presents as the war went on. Peggy was hand making bead doll brooch presents for a ‘sale of works’ by the AYPA (Anglican Young People’s Association) at Christmas in 1940. Peggy’s  1946-49 diaries show that things didn’t ease rapidly as she tries to track down suitable gifts for family.

On her 19th birthday like many wartime celebrations gifts were sparse: “a pot of cream from Mrs. Baine … a pixie hood and very cute bookmark from Aunt Madge” and for Christmas equally sparse: “Auntie Madge’s parcel arrived. I got cold-cream and powder from her and a collar from Grandad [Field]. Also received a diary from Eileen Swatton.” Sadly we don’t have this diary for 1944 or 1945.

Close up of a portrait possibly of Peggy Jane Skinner, enclosed in her 1940s diaries. Source: Mark Norris, WWZG collection.

Close up of a portrait possibly of Peggy Jane Skinner, enclosed in her 1940s diaries. Source: Mark Norris, WWZG collection.

If Peggy Jane Skinner were still alive, she would be celebrating her 90th Birthday on 20 December 2014.

We would love to hear from anyone who knew Peggy Jane Skinner via our comments page.

Happy 90th birthday Peggy Jane Skinner, not forgotten!

 

 

Happy 5th Birthday World War Zoo Gardens Newquay Zoo

August 17, 2014

Happy Birthday! Late August is the 5th anniversary of our World War Zoo Gardens wartime garden project at Newquay Zoo. It’s also our 5 year #Twitterversary  for @worldwarzoo1939

What better birthday card than a plain wartime birthday card, which jokes about rationing everything ... (Image Source: Author's collection, World War Zoo Gardens)

What better birthday card than a plain wartime birthday card, which jokes about rationing everything … (Image Source: Author’s collection, World War Zoo Gardens)

Our aim over five years since marking the 70th anniversary of the outbreak of war in 2009 has been very practical  to grow small unusual fresh food treats for our animals, but it’s also been about research and living history,  recreating the sort of allotment that grew up in zoos, botanic gardens, back gardens, railway sidings, anywhere there was land to grow ‘Dig for Victory’ vegetables to provide self-sufficiency from U-boat blockades of food,  when food much as now was mostly imported …

Inside the wartime birthday card a suitably foody rationing joke (Image: author's collection, World War Zoo gardens collection)

Inside the wartime birthday card a suitably food rationing joke (Image: author’s collection, World War Zoo gardens collection)

Now we have reached the 75th anniversary of the outbreak of WW2 in September 1939, an event somewhat overshadowed by the #WW1 centenary www.1914.org.

World War Zoo gardens graphic sign Summer 2011

World War Zoo gardens graphic sign Summer 2011

With the WW1 centenary we have been looking at what effect resource shortages of food, fuel, staff and building materials had on zoos and botanic gardens in wartime; a summary of blog posts and other WW1 related events can be found here.

World War Zoo Garden, Summer 2011: World War Zoo gardens, Newquay Zoo

World War Zoo Garden, Summer 2011: World War Zoo gardens, Newquay Zoo

There is a great little photo summary of the World War Zoo gardens project here on the BIAZA zoo website from 2011, when Newquay Zoo won its first ever zoo gardens and planting award.

Mark Norris in costume as the zoo's ARP Instructor and volunteer Ken our zoo 'Home Guard' delivering a World War Zoo Gardens schools workshop, Newquay Zoo (Photo: Lorraine Reid / Newquay Zoo)

Mark Norris in costume as the zoo’s ARP Instructor and volunteer Ken our zoo ‘Home Guard’ delivering a World War Zoo Gardens schools workshop, Newquay Zoo (Photo: Lorraine Reid / Newquay Zoo)

We’ve survived snow and ice, very wet summers, very dry summers, saved seeds, produced podcasts as well as peas, fed monkeys with home-grown artichokes and broad beans, had our gnome guards go wandering across Europe … it’s been a very busy five years!

 

Rare 'Yaki' Sulawesi Macaque monkey at Newquay Zoo enjoying fresh broad bean pods, summer 2010. (Picture: Jackie Noble, Newquay Zoo)

Rare ‘Yaki’ Sulawesi Macaque monkey at Newquay Zoo enjoying fresh broad bean pods, summer 2010. (Picture: Jackie Noble, Newquay Zoo)

LDV Gnome guard in his usual allotment spot in our wartime 'Dig For Victory' garden Summer at Newquay Zoo, 2010

LDV Gnome guard in his usual allotment spot in our wartime ‘Dig For Victory’ garden Summer at Newquay Zoo, 2010 before he went wandering around the UK and Europe …

 

Our Gnome Guard on his planned travels, appearing in our wartime display at Trelawney Garden Centre's wildlife gardening weekend, August 2010

Our Gnome Guard on his planned travels, appearing in our wartime display at Trelawney Garden Centre’s wildlife gardening weekend, August 2010

Over the last few years we have been doing schools workshops based on everyday  life in WW2 and what happened in zoos, which you can read about here.

Time for a cup of tea and a chat,  outside our wartime garden exhibition.  Trengwainton 2014. Image - WWZG.

Time for a cup of tea and a chat, outside our wartime garden exhibition. Trengwainton 2014. Image – WWZG.

One of the highlights of the past 5 years has been chatting to visitors of all ages (and notably once a group of unclad naturists) ‘over the garden fence’ at  Newquay Zoo about everything from memories of food rationing to sustainability, allotments or schools gardens or meeting many people at other events from garden centres, garden societies and 1940s events at places like the National Trust’s Trengwainton Gardens.

Mr Bloom visits the World War Zoo Dig For Victory wartime garden at Newquay Zoo, 2 April 2012 with project manager Mark Norris.

“Who’s That?” Our most famous garden visitor Cbeebies Mr Bloom visits the World War Zoo Dig For Victory wartime garden at Newquay Zoo, 2 April 2012 with project manager Mark Norris. His photo still on display in the garden still gets lots of delighted recognition from younger zoo visitors!

 

This World War Zoo Gardens Blog has now reached over 60,000 visitors worldwide who may never even have visited Newquay Zoo, along with Twitter followers @worldwarzoo1939 as well.

Clays Fertiliser advert from 1940s Britain

Clays Fertiliser advert from 1940s Britain

Thinking about food waste, allotment gardening and energy saving have remained as much a part of modern life (especially throughout the recent recession) as it was in the 1940s. Soon we’ll be blogposting about the current EAZA European Zoo Pole to Pole campaign and ‘Pull the Plug’, looking at how people in the 1940s were encouraged to save energy for the war effort, rather than to tackle climate change and protect polar wildlife.

A small memorial at Newquay Zoo to the many zoo keepers, families and visitors worldwide who have been affected by wartime since 1914 (Image: World War Zoo gardens project, Newquay Zoo)

A small memorial at Newquay Zoo to the many zoo keepers, families and visitors worldwide who have been affected by wartime since 1914 (Image: World War Zoo gardens project, Newquay Zoo)

It’s been a great group or team effort from many staff and volunteers at Newquay Zoo to get the allotment site established, maintain it when I was off ill for a year in 2012 (throughout a very wet summer) and  fantastic to establish partnerships with a wide range of people from our wartime sister zoo Paignton Zoo to London Zoo, Kew Gardens and many others. Some of these zoo and gardens staff have now retired or moved on, but as Richard one of our previous gardeners in a past  zoo newsletter wrote: “Every gardener has added something to the Zoo, developing the gardens over time. It feels like a team project where you are working with people you have never met”.

Site staff and keepers lend a hand with sandbags - Lisa from zoo site staff helping out with the World War Zoo gardens project, Newquay Zoo, December 2009

Site staff and keepers lend a hand with sandbags – Lisa from zoo site staff helping out with the World War Zoo gardens project, Newquay Zoo, December 2009

Adrian our Operations manager waylaid to lend a hand with the sand(bags) for the World war Zoo keeper's garden! Newquay Zoo, Dec. 2009

Even the odd zoo manager as in wartime would have to pick up a (Cornish!) shovel and get stuck in filling sandbags – Adrian our now retired Operations manager waylaid to lend a hand with the sand(bags) for the World war Zoo keeper’s garden! Newquay Zoo, Dec. 2009. This rocky slope originally an aviary for the Cornish chough became eventually a coati house before its rebuilding in 2010 as the Madagascar Aviary.

 

Scroll back through past blog posts for some of the highlights of our project. Happy reading!

Thanks to everyone for their support, and we look forward to another 5 years of gardening, research and digging around to unearth more fascinating stories of life in wartime zoos and botanic gardens.

Happy gardening!

Mark Norris, World War Zoo Gardens project, Newquay Zoo,  August 2014

 

Trengwainton Garden’s “Hurrah for the Home Front” 1940s event 2014 in pictures

May 12, 2014

A few pictures to say thanks to the many re-enactors, visitors and National Trust staff and volunteers at Trengwainton Gardens whom I met during  their “spirit of the 1940s” event, an enjoyable and outing away from Newquay Zoo for our own Wartime Garden project display.

Myself pictured with trusty 'weapon of war' on the garden front outside our World War Zoo gardens exhibition tent.  Image: WWZG

Myself pictured with trusty ‘weapon of war’ on the garden front outside our World War Zoo gardens exhibition tent. Image: WWZG

We had two exhibition areas staffed by myself and family and National Trust staff and volunteers, who helped us lug, load and put up the display (thanks to Marina, Abi, Gareth, Phil and many others). It was lovely to meet so many (of you) interesting people in a very busy but enjoyable 1940s day on Sunday 11 May 2014 at Trengwainton Gardens near Penzance, celebrating their wartime allotment project.

We spent a whole day chatting about recreating our own wartime garden as part of our research into how zoos and botanic gardens survived the shortages of the 1940s, partly through ‘Dig for Victory’ gardens to feed the animals. Many people asked about our First World War research into this area and also about its potential solutions for the future. We  spoke to teachers about our schools workshops, handed out lots of free wartime recipe sheets to visitors and listened (over plentiful cups of tea) to many interesting wartime family stories. All to a great 1940s sound track.

A few of our travelling display items, WWZG project, Trengwainton May 2014.  Image: WWZG

A few of our travelling display items, WWZG project, Trengwainton May 2014. Image: WWZG

More vintage gardening kit and our Gnome Guard mascot at Trengwainton 2014. Image - WWZG

More vintage gardening kit and our Gnome Guard mascot at Trengwainton 2014. Image – WWZG

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some of the many visitors in costume with vintage vehicles, Trengwainton 2014. Image - WWZG

Some of the many visitors in costume with vintage vehicles, Trengwainton 2014. Image – WWZG

Visitors and re-enactors turned up in period costume to join in with the event, which had 1940s music, vintage  vehicles and some great cakes too!

Colourful vintage costume, Trengwainton 2014 Image: WWZG

Colourful vintage costume, Trengwainton 2014 Image: WWZG

More period costume,  Trengwainton 2014. Image: WWZG

More period costume, Trengwainton 2014. Image: WWZG

Another fabulous vintage costume effort outside the recreated Anderson shelter, Trengwainton Gardens "dig for victory allotment", Trengwainton 2014. Image - WWZG.

Another fabulous vintage costume effort outside the recreated Anderson shelter, Trengwainton Gardens “dig for victory allotment”, Trengwainton 2014. Image – WWZG.

For an event like Trengwainton’s 1940s day celebrating the spirit and ingenuity of the austere but stylish 1940s, it was wonderful to see the ingenious and spirited costumes summoned up by re-enactors and visitors alike.

A nice cup of tea and a sit down, listening to the 1940s singalong, complete with period picnic basket, Trengwainton, 2014. Image WWZG

A nice cup of tea and a stylish sit down, listening to the 1940s singalong, complete with period picnic basket, Trengwainton, 2014. Image WWZG

More stylish visitors to Trengwainton's 1940s day, 2014. Image WWZG

More stylish visitors to Trengwainton’s 1940s day, 2014. Image WWZG

Trengwainton's 1940s singalong and lively dancing by re-enactors. Or is it unarmed combat training? Image - WWZG

Trengwainton’s 1940s singalong and lively dancing by re-enactors. Or is it unarmed combat training? Image – WWZG

In our wartime garden display tent, we heard many stories from visitors who were evacuated as children to the local area which we wish we could have recorded many of them. Not all the stories were happy ones, some were moved several times, others made friendships of a lifetime with their host families.

A happy evacuee! Trengwainton 1940s day, 2014.

A happy evacuee! Trengwainton 1940s day, 2014.

Along with costumed visitors and gardens staff, there were many re-enactors from the WW2  Re-enactment SouthWest group representing the British and American troops, Home Guard and Land Army girls who would have been at Trengwainton or stationed in the area.

'Event security' - American GI Military Police (MP) style, Trengwainton 1940s day, 2014. Image -WWZG.

‘Event security’ – American GI Military Police (MP) style, Trengwainton 1940s day, 2014. Not the only re-enactor animal, there were re-enactor chickens too! Image -WWZG.

 

Not your usual National Trust gardener's  uniform - Gareth (left) who is researching Trengwainton's wartime past and his family links to the local Home Guard, as well as running the Wartime allotment. Image - WWZG.

Not your usual National Trust gardener’s uniform – Gareth (left) who is researching Trengwainton’s wartime past and his family links to the local Home Guard, as well as running their wartime allotment. Image – WWZG.

Home Guard re-enactor, Trengwainton 2014. Image - WWZG

Home Guard re-enactor, Trengwainton 2014. Image – WWZG

Drilling  some young visitors in Home Guard drill, Trengwainton, 2014. Image - WWZG.

Drilling some young visitors in Home Guard drill, Trengwainton, 2014. Image – WWZG.

Many of the re-enactors had pitched camp the night before and put together evocative collections of artefacts, from motorbikes to simple camp stoves and even a mini farm yard! Hopefully they were all awakened by bugle call!

Re-enactor's wake up call! Trengwainton, 2014. Image - WWZG

Re-enactor’s wake up call! Trengwainton, 2014. Image – WWZG

 

Trengwainton, 2014. Image - WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014. Image – WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014. Image - WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014. Image – WWZG.

A few famous Home Guard names on the patrol list board! Trengwainton, 2014. Image - WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014. Image – WWZG.

A few famous Home Guard names on the patrol list board! Trengwainton, 2014. Image- WWZG.

A few famous Home Guard names on the patrol list board! Trengwainton, 2014. Image- WWZG.

Ladies in Khaki, Trengwainton, 2014.  Image - WWZG.

Ladies in Khaki, Trengwainton, 2014.
Image – WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014.  Image - WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014.
Image – WWZG.

Re-enactors with a much admired vintage motor bike, Trengwainton, 2014.  Image - WWZG.

Re-enactors with a much admired vintage motor bike, Trengwainton, 2014.
Image – WWZG.

Warden's tent, Trengwainton, 2014.  Image - WWZG.

Warden’s tent, Trengwainton, 2014.
Image – WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014.  Image - WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014.
Image – WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014. Image - WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014. Image – WWZG.

Smoky and atmospheric Trengwainton, 2014.  Image - WWZG.

Smoky and atmospheric Trengwainton, 2014.
Image – WWZG.

Smoky and atmospheric Trengwainton, 2014.  Image - WWZG.

Smoky and atmospheric Trengwainton, 2014.
Image – WWZG

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A chat with the Warden. One in every six wardens was a woman.  Trengwainton 2014. Image -   WWZG.

A chat with the Warden. One in every six wardens was a woman. Trengwainton 2014. Image – WWZG.

A knit and natter and vintage crafts in costume, Trengwainton 2014. Image - WWZG.

A knit and natter and vintage crafts in costume, Trengwainton 2014. Image – WWZG.

Visitors, vintage crafts and costumes, National Trust Trengwainton 2014. Image - WWZG.

Visitors, vintage crafts and costumes, National Trust Trengwainton 2014. Image – WWZG.

 

Chatting with visitors outside our wartime garden tent exhibition, Trengwainton 2014. Image - WWZG.

Chatting with visitors outside our wartime garden tent exhibition, Trengwainton 2014. Image – WWZG.

Vintage vehicles and costumes on the drive at Trengwainton, 2014. Image - WWZG.

Vintage vehicles and costumes on the drive at Trengwainton, 2014. Image – WWZG.

 

Trengwainton, 2014. Image- WWZG.

Trengwainton, 2014. Image- WWZG.

Many of the re-enactors I spoke to were very busy with the forthcoming 70th anniversary commemorations of D -Day not only here in the South West but also in Normandy, paying tribute in their own way, sharing their interest with the next generation and showing that these remarkable and troubling times are not forgotten.

Time for a cup of tea and a chat,  outside our wartime garden exhibition.  Trengwainton 2014. Image - WWZG.

Time for a cup of tea and a chat, outside our wartime garden exhibition. Trengwainton 2014. Image – WWZG.

Part of Newquay Zoo's World War Zoo Gardens schools wartime zoo workshop materials - helmets and uniforms - to try on, Trengwainton 2014. Image WWZG

Part of Newquay Zoo’s World War Zoo Gardens schools wartime zoo workshop materials – helmets and uniforms – to try on, Trengwainton 2014. Image WWZG

Following up our previous blog post, it was lovely to see the Wartime Garden project at Trengwainton full of visitors and growing away well. This was our connection to the day, a similar wartime garden recreation at Newquay Zoo, born around the same time in 2009 and with some shared research into crop varieties and period features. There’s also one at Occombe Farm in Devon!

The Trengwainton wartime garden Potting Shed open for  display, 2014. Image - WWZG.

The Trengwainton wartime garden Potting Shed open for display, 2014. Image – WWZG.

Everyday 1940s items in the Trengwainton wartime garden Anderson shelter  open for  display, 2014. Image - WWZG.

Everyday 1940s items in the Trengwainton wartime garden Anderson shelter open for display, 2014. Image – WWZG.

It was the many chats with visitors that made the day a special event. Land Girls in the wartime garden, Trengwainton, 2014. Image - WWZG.

It was the many chats with visitors that made the day a special event. Land Girls back in the wartime garden, Trengwainton, 2014. Image – WWZG.

Land Girls back in the wartime garden at Trengwainton, 2014. Image - WWZG.

Land Girls back in the wartime garden at Trengwainton, 2014. Image – WWZG.

Trengwainton Garden Dig for Victory allotment May 2014. Image - WWZG.

Trengwainton Garden Dig for Victory allotment, May 2014. Image – WWZG.

Thanks to Claire for the  pictures and thanks to all the people who took part, chatted to us and shared their stories  and had their photos taken.  If you don’t like your photo, please contact me via the comments and I can remove it. Hopefully this selection of photos  gives you a feel of the event in 2014. If you’re not featured, sadly not all of the pictures came out. We look forward to next year (or whenever we next meet!)

Sadly after a day of 1940s singalong when I got home and unpacked our display materails, it was to find that David Lowe from BBC Radio Devon – almost the sound track of our wartime garden for many years – is now off air on Sunday evenings. We will not be alone across many generations  in missing his programme greatly.

Mark Norris, WWZG World War Zoo Gardens project, Newquay Zoo, Cornwall.

Trengwainton’s Wartime Garden Project, Cornwall

May 2, 2014

I was really pleased to finally make it to Trengwainton Gardens at Penzance in Cornwall to see their wartime garden project this week. I was scouting out locations for our possible World War Zoo Gardens wartime garden display at Trengwainton’s 1940s wartime garden weekend “Hoorah for the Home Front” on Sunday 11th May 2014.

The entry in the walled garden through to Trengwainton's wartime garden in the orchard May 2014 Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

The entry in the walled garden through to Trengwainton’s wartime garden in the orchard May 2014 Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

I came across this project several years ago when I was researching our own Wartime garden at Newquay Zoo and exchanged 1940s plant variety notes with one of the Project consultants, Paul Bonnington.

Trengwainton NT wartime garden May 2014.  Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

Trengwainton NT wartime garden May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

Trengwainton have recreated an Anderson shelter, something I wanted to do in the first plans for the Newquay Zoo version of a wartime allotment in 2009. Many months later trawling eBay for original ‘heritage rust’ available from as little as 99p (if you travel to the other side of the country to dig up and dismantle it for the owners), I decided against the idea.
Instead I sent Paul the shelter plans and dimensions from original 1940s ARP publications and woodworking magazines. Trengwainton have recreated one in full shiny glory, not yet covered in a protective and productive coating of soil and produce. People at the time were worried that the shiny metal would be too easily visible from the air, hence the edible camouflage that soon appeared on top.

Land girls back at Trengwainton wartime garden NT, Cornwall May 2014  Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

Land girls back at Trengwainton wartime garden NT, Cornwall May 2014
Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

In several Land Girl autobiographies and histories (such as the oral history account produced by the Penzance / West Cornwall based Hypatia Trust) Trengwainton is mentioned. Land Girls from all over Britain trained, lived and worked at gardens like Trengwainton.

Project signage, Dig for Victory Wartime garden, Trengwainton, NT, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Project signage, Dig for Victory Wartime garden, Trengwainton, NT, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Propaganda posters of WLA Land Girls aside, the less glamorous side of wartime gardening has been ‘recreated’ in this working garden such as compost heaps. Just as we use produce from the Newquay Zoo version to feed our animals (and occasionally in the cafe), Trengwainton uses produce from its several sections of walled gardens (built apparently, no one knows why, to the dimensions of Noah’s Ark) in its tearooms.

Trengwainton NT wartime garden project, May 2014. Image Mark Norris, WWZG.

Trengwainton NT wartime garden project, May 2014. Image Mark Norris, WWZG.

I look forward to joining the events and gardens team there and other re-enactors from the Southwest WW2 reenactment society in celebrating “the spirit and ingenuity” of the 1940s on the 11th May 2014, with a small display of our wartime garden materials that we use with schools (see previous blog post). You can find out more about the Trengwainton garden and events: Www.nationaltrust.org.uk/trengwainton-garden  There are photos of past 40s weekends there in local news coverage. 

Hooray for the Home Front poster 11 May 2014, Trengwainton, NT, Cornwall.

Hooray for the Home Front poster 11 May 2014, Trengwainton, NT, Cornwall.

Our Wartime garden project co-opts Newquay Zoo’s free-ranging chickens as and when required for displays. Trengwainton has built coops in the orchard for several beautiful Buff Orpington hens and chicks, a great sound effect background noise to the garden project.

Salvage bins marked up WVS, a nice touch in the chicken coop, Trengwainton NT, Cornwall wartime garden project, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

Salvage bins marked up WVS, a nice touch in the chicken coop, Trengwainton NT, Cornwall wartime garden project, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

 

Buff Orpington chickens, Trengwainton wartime garden project, Cornwall. May 2014 Image: Mark Norris: WWZG.

Buff Orpington chickens, Trengwainton wartime garden project, Cornwall. May 2014 Image: Mark Norris: WWZG.

Trengwainton's orchard with walled garden backdrop, wartime garden project, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Trengwainton’s orchard with walled garden backdrop, wartime garden project, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

 

Unusual 'aeroplane' weathercock or bird scarer, Trengwainton NT wartime garden project, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Unusual ‘aeroplane’ weathercock or bird scarer, Trengwainton NT wartime garden project, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

A bit of Trengwainton's history on its wartime garden signage, Cornwall, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

A bit of Trengwainton’s history on its wartime garden signage, Cornwall, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Another clever idea (similar to something I am working on at Newquay Zoo) is their display potting shed, full of period items.

Inside the wartime potting shed, wartime garden project,  Trengwainton NT, Cornwall, May 2014 Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Inside the wartime potting shed, wartime garden project, Trengwainton NT, Cornwall, May 2014 Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Anderson shelter recreated, Trengwainton NT wartime garden project, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Anderson shelter recreated, Trengwainton NT wartime garden project, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Chickens and rose hips, Trengwainton NT wartime garden project, Cornwall. May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Chickens and rose hips, Trengwainton NT wartime garden project, Cornwall. May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Rose hips were (after research into their Vitamin C content at Kew) gathered as a source of Vitamin C during wartime, often by WIs and schoolchildren keen to make some pocket money.

Wartime poster, Trengwainton NT, Cornwall May 2014 Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Wartime poster, Trengwainton NT, Cornwall May 2014 Image: Mark Norris, WWZG.

Recreating a wartime potting shed, Trengwainton NT wartime garden project, Cornwall. May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

Recreating a wartime potting shed, Trengwainton NT wartime garden project, Cornwall. May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

I hope you enjoy these glimpses of Trengwainton’s Wartime garden project and get the chance to visit.

I might even meet some of you at their 1940s event on Sunday the 11th May 2014 which we hope to attend with our display; if I get the chance to photograph the event, I’ll post some further pictures here.

Pedople asked for views of the walled kitchen gardens at Trengwainton so here are a few more shots:

The main walled kitchen gardens at Trengwainton, Cornwall, May 2014 Image: Mark Norris: WWZG.

The main walled kitchen gardens at Trengwainton, Cornwall, May 2014 Image: Mark Norris: WWZG.

 

Green Manure (mustard) flowering in the Walled kitchen gardens, Trengwainton, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

Green Manure (mustard) flowering in the Walled kitchen gardens, Trengwainton, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG

Walled kitchen gardens, Trengwainton, Cornwall, May 2014.  Image: Mark Norris, WWZG,

Walled kitchen gardens, Trengwainton, Cornwall, May 2014. Image: Mark Norris, WWZG,

Posted by: Mark Norris, World War Zoo Gardens project, Newquay Zoo, Cornwall. Contact via http://www.newquayzoo.org.uk


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