ANZAC day on 25 April 2015 is the centenary of the landings at Gallipoli.
On the day and over the next few months of bitter fighting, several zoo related and botanic gardens staff were killed at Gallipoli.
Kew Gardens lost Charles F. Ball and Walter Morland from amongst the former Kew trained staff. Charles Ball was based at Glasnevin, now part of the National Botanic Gardens of Ireland.
Private Charles Frederick Ball, service number 16445, 7th Battalion, Royal Dublin Fusiliers (Pals Battalion), died at Gallipoli on 13 September 1915, aged 36. He is buried at Lala Baba Cemetery in Gallipoli, Turkey.
C.F. Ball, Gallipoli casualty, is remembered in the hedging plant Escallonia ‘C.F. Ball’.
Kew trained gardener Walter Morland of the 5th Royal Scots was killed at Gallipoli. Married in 1909 whilst serving at Cambridge University Botanic Gardens, Morland enlisted on August 31 1914 in the 5th Battalion Royal Scots (Queen’s Edinburgh Rifles) at Edinburgh where he was (CWGC entry) “on staff at Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh as a Rose Specialist“..
Morland survived the landings on April 25th 1915 (the date on his entry to Theatre of war on his WW1 medal record card) but died on 2nd or 7th May – records vary – during:
“an assault on a wood below Krythia on May 7th. For three weeks no traces of him could be found, and it was supposed he had been taken prisoner; then his chums, during an advance, found his body.”
Walter Morland has no known grave and is remembered with many other missing men on panel 26-30 of the Helles Memorial at Gallipoli in Turkey.
Ball and Morland’s stories are told more fully on the Kew Gardens WW1 War Memorial blogpost: https://worldwarzoogardener1939.wordpress.com/2013/07/19/such-is-the-price-of-empire-the-lost-gardeners-of-kew-in-the-first-world-war/
RBGE Gallipoli Casualties
The Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh (RBGE) had many former staff serving in the local regiment the 5th Battalion Royal Scots including Kew trained Walter Morland.
Several of the 20 RBGE staff casualties were killed at Gallipoli. Archivist Leonie Paterson has uncovered the service stories behind their Roll of Honour and the RBGE War Memorial.
Private Duncan Smith, RBGE Gardener 1909, served in the 5th Royal Scots in Gallipoli and was killed in action after three months on 11 June 1915.
William Gordon Dickson, Labourer RBGE 1914, Private 5th Royal Scots killed in action Gallipoli 28 June 1915.
Sergeant George Fallow, 5th Batt. The Royal Scots, a former gardener on the staff of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, died 19th August 1915, in Egypt, of wounds received in action at Gallipoli. Fallow had a Buddleia fallownia plant named after him by RBGE staff http://stories.rbge.org.uk/archives/12442
Private John Mathieson Brown, served 7th Royal Scots Egypt and Galliopoli 1 year, killed in action Gallipoli 24 November (1917?)
RBGE Gallipoli Survivors
Others served and survived Gallipoli like Private William Dykes employed at RBGE as a Boy (junior staff) in 1914. Dykes served at Galliploi and France for 2 years with the 5th Royal Scots, being wounded once and demobilised in 1919.
Corporal Horace Elwood, RBGE Probationer 1913, also served with the 5th Royal Scots for 1 year 1 month at Gallipoli, twice wounded, demobilised 1919.
Henry Johnstone (RBGE Labourer) served in Egypt, Gallipoli and Flanders for three years, 9 months, being once wounded and demobilised 1919. Charles Lamont (RBGE Probationer, 1914) also served for these periods and places, again once wounded.
John McMillan Lugton, RBGE Park Keeper 1913, served as a Squadron Sergeant-Major in the Scottish Horse for three years Gallipoli, Egypt, Balkans and France, being twice wounded.
Alexander McCutcheon, RBGE Gardener 1907 returned on demobilisation to become a Foreman in 1919. He had served as a Sergeant in the Royal Scots for three years ten months in Gallipoli and Flanders.
James Maxwell Hampson, RBGE Labourer 1914, served as a Private, 5th Royal Scots at Gallipoli for one year, only to be killed in action two years later in France on 8 March 1918.
Dublin Zoo RZSI – Frank Brendan O’Carroll
Zoo families were affected by the loss of staff but also of the members of staff families on active service. Sons, brothers, grandsons and heirs of zoo and botanic gardens staff were lost in WW1. The wealthy citizens and Dublin Zoo council members living in Merrion Square in Dublin had their own family losses. One such was Frank Brendan O’Carroll, the son of Dublin Zoo RZSI council member Joseph O’Carroll MD FRCPI of 43 Merrion Square, Dublin.
Second Lieutenant Frank Brendan O’Carroll, 6th Battalion, Royal Dublin Fusiliers died on 10 August 1915, aged 20 as part of the Gallipoli and Dardanelles campaign. He is remembered on panel 190-196 of the Helles memorial to the missing, Turkey.
The circumstances of his death are recorded in the 6th Battalion war diary: http://www.dublin-fusiliers.com/battaliions/6-batt/war-diaries/1915-08/1915-08-trans-htm
7 August Suvla Bay. Made landing at C Beach on Anafarta Bay at 18.00. Battalion in reserve under Brig General Hill. Took up position at Entrance to Salt Lake. 6th and 7th Dublins attached to 31st Brigade.
8 August Suvla Bay. Battalion on water and ammunition fatigue for the Brigade
9 August Suvla Bay. Battalion attached to 33 Brigade (General Maxwell), Moved from beach about 02.30 to Hill 50. A Coy detached to support the right flank of the Brigade. Battalion ordered to support firing line near Ali Bay Chesme point 105-H-8.
Officers killed Lt Doyle, wounded believed killed 2nd Lt Stanton, 2nd Lt Mc Garry. Wounded and missing Major Jennings. Wounded Capt Luke, Capt Carrol, Lt Martin, 2nd Lt Carter, 2nd Lt Mortimer, 2nd Lt O’Carroll. Missing Lt Clery. Killed wounded and missing Other Ranks 259.
The Europeana website has a poignant letter from father Joseph as he worries over four sons including another fighting in Gallipolli. http://www.europeana1914-1918.eu/en/contributions/3619
O’Carroll’s name on the memorial is pictured on http://www.irishmedals.org/irishmen-at-gallipoli.html
Royal Botanic Gardens Melbourne have a staff memorial tree which remembers Driver Arthur William Bugg AASC who died in hospital in Egypt in 1915 as part of the AIF. Members of his family have been involved in the Shrine at the ANZAC service in Melbourne. We have posted more about this memorial on our previous blogposts.
You can hear more of the survivor’s voices (including Alexander Burnett of the Royal Scots) from Gallipoli on the IWM WW1 centenary Podcast No 14
You can also read more on the CWGC website: http://www.cwgc.org/anniversaries/gallipoli.aspx
Mark Norris, World War Zoo Gardens project, Newquay Zoo